So-Called Experts: How American Consultants Remade the Canadian Civil Service, 1918-1921

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But we took a lick. We took a bad beating in the prices," he laments. But consumer confidence in Gulf seafood is low, very low. The public is not only worried about seafood contamination from oil, but also from the dispersant Corexit. In July, Shaw authored a consensus statement opposing the use of chemical dispersants in the Gulf of Mexico. Nichols, research associate at the California Academy of Scientists. One of the recommendations called for the full disclosure of all the chemical ingredients in the two Corexit formulations used by BP and full data on the toxicity of these chemicals when combined with oil.

The paper, "The Use of Surface and Subsurface Dispersants During the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill", points out that the use of dispersants during the aftermath of the Macondo deepwater well explosion was controversial for three reasons. First, the total amount of dispersants used was unprecedented: nearly two million gallons.

Second, , of those gallons were applied directly at the wellhead, with little to no prior testing on the effectiveness and potential adverse environmental consequences of using dispersants at that depth, let alone at those volumes. Third, the existing federal regulatory system pre-authorized dispersant use in the Gulf of Mexico without any limits or guidelines as to amount or duration.

Deepwater Horizon oil is in the food chain, and will be there for decades," says Shaw. After the US Environmental Protection Agency EPA conducted a round of dispersant tests back in July, it announced that Corexit "is generally no more or less toxic than mixtures with the other available alternatives" and "the dispersant-oil mixtures are generally no more toxic to the aquatic test species than oil alone. Additionally, the tests were conducted in a laboratory setting on only two aquatic species— mysid shrimp and small estuarine fish — although more than 15, marine species inhabit the Gulf, and only measured the concentrations that cause 50 percent of the test organisms to die within 48 or 96 hours of exposure.

Most important, perhaps, EPA tests failed to measure sub-lethal effects of oil dispersants, such as the potential impact on the growth or reproduction of various seafood species. The EPA claims that dispersant-oil mixtures are generally no more toxic than oil alone. The main concern is not so much the dispersants themselves, but rather how the dispersants change the oil.

Dispersants function like detergents to break up the oil into small droplets that mix easily into the water column, where they may be more easily picked up by the bodies of fish and shellfish. According to Shaw, there is already evidence that crabs and crab larvae have oil in their bodies, and recent studies by two separate laboratories show that Gulf shrimp contain oil and hydrocarbons.

Over time these toxins have the potential to accumulate within organisms, and then be passed further up the food chain. One species of concern is the lowly menhaden. Aaron Adams, manager of the Fisheries Habitat Ecology Program at Mote Marine Laboratory in Sarasota, Florida explains, "With menhaden, they can actually accumulate toxins that are in the plankton after the oil spill, and then fish that eat them could magnify concentrations of those and that can actually be passed up the food chain.

Scientists are not only concerned about the accumulation of toxins in organisms, but also the effects that the dispersed oil may have in the long-run on the growth, reproduction, fertilization success and embryo development of marine life in the Gulf. Some species may be hit harder than others, such as the Atlantic bluefin tuna, which spawn at the exact same time and location that the oil spill occurred. Already considered critically endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature IUCN due to an 80 percent decline in the past 30 years, new satellite data from the European Space Agency shows that one-fifth of juvenile Atlantic bluefin tuna were killed as a result of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

Other species may be hit hard too, as many of the reef-associated species in the Gulf spawn around that time of year as well. It would not be the first time that a large-scale event had ecological repercussions; the impacts of which will not be seen for some time. In , there was a very extensive red tide that lasted for many months along the west coast of Florida. Adams explains that continued monitoring is going to be important, especially for the long-lived species, the effects of the spill will be reflect in trends.

Further research is needed to determine the impacts that the oil spill will have on fisheries in the Gulf of Mexico. Bortone reports that the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council is increasing its assessments directly related to oil spill associated features. In addition, the organization wrote a fairly extensive letter of advisement to the National Marine Fisheries Service calling for additional research in areas that they anticipate were impacted.

Bortone said, "There was new impetus to reinforce the increase of much more environmental data and fisheries data relative to the spill. The other component to all this new data is that scientists and managers need a way to share this information. One of the aims of the workshop was to develop a regional research and management body that would serve as a central point for gathering all the data for the Gulf of Mexico.

This new body would not only include state and federal management agencies, but research biologists at academic institutions and non-governmental organizations as well, and all the partners would be included in the process. Scientists are only beginning to understand the effects that the oil spill will have on seafood and fisheries, but the issue hits closest to home for the numerous Gulf fishermen whose lives and livelihoods depend on those outcomes. NOAA reports that both actual and potential contamination of seafood can substantially affect commercial and recreational fishing, and that loss of confidence in seafood safety and quality can impact seafood markets long after any actual risk to seafood from the spill has subsided, resulting in serious economic consequences.

I had a full head of black hair, a six pack, and I had some forty-five guns in my arms, ok? You figure ten years will kill me. About the Author: Allie Wilkinson is a freelance science writer and multimedia specialist with a background in environmental studies and conservation biology, especially interested in issues dealing with human dimensions of natural resources, human-wildlife conflict, and environmental pollutants. You can follow her on her blog Oh, For the Love of Science! The views expressed are those of the author and are not necessarily those of Scientific American.

The views expressed are those of the author s and are not necessarily those of Scientific American. Allie Wilkinson is a freelance multimedia journalist specializing in science, technology and the environment. She is a Metcalf Fellow. Allie is also the creator of This Is What A Scientist Looks Like , a community photo project aimed at challenging the stereotypical perception of a scientist.

It causes food poisoning by releasing enterotoxins into food. After 3—6 hours of consuming contaminated food, symptoms begin. The most marked and severe symptoms are nausea and vomiting. The others are stomachache and diarrhea [ 16 ]. This bacterium cannot be eliminated by cooking. Therefore, it is necessary to keep foods refrigerated; the use of aprons and gloves by staff reduces skin-to-skin contact and, therefore, the staff should further follow the rules of hygiene and minimize physical contact with food [ 9 , 13 , 21 ].

For staphylococcal food poisoning, phage typing can be performed to determine whether the staphylococci recovered from the food were the source of infection. Depending on the type of infection present an appropriate specimen is obtained accordingly and sent to the laboratory for definitive identification using biochemical or enzyme-based tests. Furthermore, for differentiation on the species level, catalase, coagulase, DNAse, lipase and phosphatase tests are all done [ 19 ].

Especially, it is found in the digestive system of humans as well as of animals and in soil [ 13 ]. This bacterium is the third most common cause of foodborne illnesses in the United Kingdom and United States.

According to some estimates, this type of bacteria causes nearly a million illnesses each year. Poisoning occurs after contamination of foods. Cooking kills the growing C.

Community and Environment

If cooked food is not promptly served or refrigerated, the spores can grow and produce new cells [ 22 ]. Furthermore, the oxygen level may be sufficiently reduced during cooking to permit growth of the clostridia. Spores that survive cooking may germinate and grow rapidly in foods that are inadequately refrigerated after cooking [ 23 ]. It easily reproduces in meat that has been sitting at room temperature for a long time after being cooked, in undercooked and repeatedly re-heated meat and in meat served cold [ 13 , 19 ]. Such losses may make it difficult to establish C.

It is recommended that samples that cannot be examined immediately be treated with buffered glycerin salt solution and stored or shipped frozen to the laboratory [ 23 ]. It can be detected in contaminated food [if not heated properly and feces. Incubation time is between 6 and 24 hours after consuming of contaminated food [ 24 ]. Usual symptoms typically include abdominal cramping, diarrhea; vomiting and fever. Many cases of C. This has led to the conclusion that most of the population has experienced food poisoning due to C. Despite its potential dangers, C.

The baking process is thought to reduce the bacterial contamination, precluding negative effects [ 25 ].


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This microorganism can be prevented from harming the food by cooling the cooked food rapidly, saving leftover food in shallow containers and storing food in appropriate conditions [ 13 , 19 ]. Salmonella is a rod shaped bacteria and can live in a variety of habitats.

Some strains of Salmonella live in water, soil, food plants and feces of contaminated humans. Generally the bacterium is able to access those places through cross-contamination of already-infected organisms or feces. When present in water, Salmonella can live for several weeks; in soil the bacteria can live up to several years, while in feces the bacteria may only survive a few days.

The bacteria can survive in salt water and cooler environments, but a too hot of an environment may kill the bacteria [ 19 , 26 ]. Salmonellosis in humans is generally contracted through the consumption of contaminated food of animal origin mainly eggs, meat, poultry and milk , although other foods, including green vegetables contaminated by manure, have been implicated in its transmission. Person-to-person transmission through the fecal—oral route can also occur. Human cases also occur where individuals have contact with infected animals, including pets [ 27 ]. Usually, symptoms start 12—72 hours after ingestion of bacteria.

It is usually characterized by acute onset of diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, nausea and vomiting. In most cases, the illness lasts for 4—7 days, and most people recover without treatment. But, Salmonella can cause more serious illness in older adults, infants and persons with chronic diseases [ 26 ]. Salmonella food poisoning has long been, and continues to be, an important global public health problem. In much of Europe and North America, Salmonella is mostly found in raw or undercooked chicken, meat, eggs and fish and in unpasteurized milk.

It is very easy to control and can be killed by cooking foods at sufficiently high temperatures. To prevent Salmonella contamination, the food should be stored at appropriate temperatures, sanitation and hygiene rules should be followed and rodents and flies should be removed from the work environment [ 9 , 13 , 27 ]. The natural habitat of the bacteria are pharynx, rectum and skin [ 19 ]. Certain Streptococcus species are responsible for many cases of pink eye, meningitis, bacterial pneumonia, endocarditis, erysipelas and necrotizing fasciitis [ 18 ]. Streptococcus is found inside the human mouth, on hands and in nose secretions and can be conveyed to foods through contact with these secretions.

For this reason, infected persons should not prepare food, and the food should be kept in appropriate conditions after being cooled rapidly [ 19 , 21 ]. Shigella is a nonmotile, gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, non—spore-forming, rod shaped bacterium. It is one of the leading bacterial causes of diarrhea worldwide [ 28 ]. The primary host and natural reservoir known at this point for Shigella is the human gastrointestinal tract. Shigella can survive in fecal-contaminated material but has a low survival rate without the optimal acidic environment in the intestinal tract [ 29 , 30 ].

There are two different mechanisms for pathogenicity. Firstly, bacterial number increases very fast in intestine and then settles into mucosal entry and colon. Because they may cause leakage of blood into the lumen, bloody diarrhea occurs. Secondly, the production of endogenous toxin, which is known as Shiga toxin , results in diarrhea [ 16 ]. Shigella infection typically occurs by ingestion fecal—oral contamination ; depending on age and condition of the host, fewer than bacterial cells can be enough to cause an infection. Food prepared by the contaminated person may easily become contaminated with Shigella bacteria [ 30 ].

Symptoms of shigellosis include mild to severe diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, fever, dehydration, nausea, vomiting and stomach cramps. They usually appear between 1 and 7 days after contracting the bacteria [ 31 ]. The diagnosis of shigellosis is made by isolating the organism from diarrheal fecal sample cultures. It can infect the food in any environment where hygiene rules are not followed. The most important protective factor against Shigella is to follow proper personal hygiene rules [ 13 , 18 , 21 ]. Hand washing before handling food and thoroughly cooking all food before eating decrease the risk of getting shigellosis [ 32 ].

C botulinum is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming, motile bacterium with the ability to produce the neurotoxin botulinum [ 33 , 34 ]. The natural habitats of the C. Since it is found in the soil, it may contaminate vegetables cultivated in or on the soil. It also colonizes the gastrointestinal tract of fishes, birds and mammals [ 35 ]. Foodborne botulism generally occurs 18 to 36 hours after exposure [range 6 hours to 8 days].

Initial symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps or diarrhea. After the onset of neurological symptoms, constipation is typical. Dry mouth, blurred vision and diplopia are usually the earliest neurological symptoms. They are followed by dysphonia, dysarthria, dysphagia and peripheral muscle weakness.

Symmetric descending paralysis is characteristic of botulism [ 35 ]. There are no fever and no loss of consciousness. The symptoms are not caused by the bacterium itself, but by the toxin produced by the bacterium. Incidence of botulism is low, but the mortality rate is high if prompt diagnosis and appropriate, immediate treatment early administration of antitoxin and intensive respiratory care are not given. Because it is an anaerobic bacterium, it can only grow in the absence of oxygen.

Foodborne botulism occurs when C. The growth of the bacteria and the formation of toxin occur in products with low oxygen content and certain combinations of storage temperature and preservative parameters. Canned foods improperly prepared and heated and particularly low-acid foods, such as green beans, spinach, mushrooms, meat and vegetables, are very risky in regard to C.

Occasionally, commercially prepared foods are involved. Though spores of C. Therefore, ready-to-eat foods in low-oxygen packaging are more frequently involved in botulism [ 36 ]. Food inside cans that are deformed or warped should under no circumstances be consumed [ 9 , 18 ].

Background on the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) | FDA

Prevention of foodborne botulism is based on good practice in food preparation, particularly preservation and hygiene. Botulism may be prevented by the inactivation of the bacterial spores in heat-sterilized or canned products or by inhibiting bacterial growth in other products. Commercial heat pasteurization may not be sufficient to kill all spores, and therefore the safety of these products must be based on preventing bacterial growth and toxin production. Coli H7 is a very common bacterium found in the human intestines [ 9 ]. Provided resource availability and key abiotic conditions availability of energy and nutrient sources, pH, moisture and temperature are propitious, E.

There are also possibilities for migration between these habitats [ 37 ]. Whether food is prepared at home, in a restaurant or in a grocery store, unsafe handling and preparation can cause contamination. Fecal contamination of water or foods is responsible for causing the infection [ 39 ]. It can be conveyed through raw or undercooked minced meat or unpasteurized milk. Infection by this bacterium can cause hemolytic—uremic syndrome, which can cause bloody colitis with severe abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, and the syndrome can lead to renal failure, brain damage, heart attack, paralysis and even death [ 9 ].

People with weakened immune systems, pregnant women, young children, and older adults are at increased risk for developing these complications [ 38 ]. Person-to-person contact is an important mode of transmission through the oral-fecal route. The duration of excretion of EHEC is about 1 week or less in adults, but can be longer in children.

Visiting farms and other venues where the general public might come into direct contact with farm animals has also been identified as an important risk factor for EHEC infection [ 39 ].

Overview of the Seafood Industry

To protect against contamination, the meat should be cooked very well and foods that include meat should be prepared in perfectly hygienic conditions [ 9 ]. The prevention of infection requires control measures at all stages of the food chain, from agricultural production on the farm to processing, manufacturing and preparation of foods in both commercial establishments and household kitchens [ 39 ]. Campylobacter is a gram-negative, microaerophilic, non-fermentative bacterium.


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    While its actual incidence is not known exactly, in high-income countries, its incidence ranges between 4. The infection can pass through animal-sourced food, particularly those of flying bird species, domestic animals, such as cats and dogs, contaminated surface streams, unpasteurized milk and direct physical contact with infected animals. Infection from this bacterium leads to foodborne diseases usually through uncooked meat and other products and raw or unpasteurized milk.

    Contaminated water and ice are also sources of infection [ 39 ]. Campylobacter jejuni can be found in both fresh water and sea water and can live for 5 weeks in this environment. Wild birds, farm animals, farm areas and surfaces of still waters create an ideal ecological system for different types of Campylobacter. The presence of this microorganism in nature indicates that fecal contamination has occurred in that area.

    These microorganisms are unable to survive and reproduce anywhere except for in their hosts, and they die in sunlight. Contamination occurs in the environment and on other animals particularly through the droppings of wild birds, such as ducks, geese and seagulls [ 21 ]. To prevent its infection, it is necessary to take protective measures in all stages of the food chain, from production to consumption, and to apply these protective measures in both industrial and domestic environments [ 39 ]. It can be destroyed at the boiling temperature in 5—30 minutes [ 16 ].

    The microbe is able to grow either in the presence or in the absence of oxygen. Its spores are sufficiently heat resistant to survive pasteurization treatment of milk and standard cooking temperatures reached in domestic kitchens. It cannot survive the high-temperature treatment used to process canned foods. The symptoms start after 30 minutes of ingestion. Firstly, nausea and vomiting can be seen and then diarrhetic syndrome generally starts [ 40 ]. In case of foodborne illness, the diagnosis of B. To prevent infection, foods should be washed thoroughly, not left at room temperature for a long time after being cooked and not left in an open container on the kitchen floor [ 19 , 21 ].

    Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanensis and T. It usually infects people through contaminated water and uncooked meat. The parasite attaches to the epithelium by a ventral adhesive disc and reproduces via binary fission. The most frequent symptoms associated with this parasite are diarrhea, abdominal cramps, gas and nausea.

    Giardia lamblia is difficult to detect, which often leads to a delay in diagnosis or misdiagnosis; several tests should be conducted over a 1-week period. It is especially important that proper hand hygiene be practiced for protection against this parasite [ 42 ]. It is responsible for causing the disease cryptosporidiosis, also known as "Crypto", and it is the main cause of worldwide diseases originating from water and food.

    Generally, it infects people through soil, foods, water and infected animal parts that had contact with feces. Its most widespread symptoms are diarrhea, abdominal cramps, upset stomach and mild fever. Some cases, however, may not cause any symptoms. In order to protect against this parasite, proper personal hygiene should be performed, only clean water should be used for drinking and vegetables or fruits that have been fertilized with unprocessed fertilizer should not be consumed [ 42 ]. When the parasite is involved, watery diarrhea is commonly seen as the main symptom. There is no known effective treatment method.

    Although the incidence of cyclosporiasis is reported to be increasing in many countries, this organism is not very well known. In the incubation stage of the parasite, C. The disease may cause symptoms such as diarrhea, loss of appetite, abdominal ventricosity, nausea and vomiting. To protect against infection from this parasite, it is necessary to perform proper personal hygiene and to wash or peel vegetables and fruits before eating them [ 43 ].

    It is among the top three causes of death from foodborne diseases worldwide. It can infect people through the consumption of uncooked meat or by drinking from fresh water sources, such as lakes or streams. This parasite can also infect the fetus through the mother. Moreover, as cats are major hosts for T. Symptoms associated with infection from this parasite include diarrhea, upset stomach, vomiting and abdominal pain [ 44 ].

    In food-caused toxoplasmosis cases, T. Especially, this parasite spreads faster by products that are contaminated with cat feces. With the higher consumption of raw meats, it shows increased prevalence in Europe and South Africa. Toxoplasma infections can be diagnosed by response of antibodies with serologic applications [ 17 ]. Infections caused by microorganisms are largely the result of the poor hygiene of the person responsible for preparing the food. These microorganisms can rapidly reproduce in temperatures outside the safe ranges specified by food safety regulations [ 1 ].

    Cooked foods should not be left to sit in room temperature for longer than two hours. Microorganisms can reproduce very rapidly at room temperature. Table 1 presents the measures that should be followed to ensure food safety [ 1 ]. The food processing stage is one of the most important stages in the food chain, and those responsible for performing the duties involved in this stage assume major responsibilities in the prevention of food poisoning cases [ 46 , 47 ].

    The food processing staff should include healthy individuals who do not have any diseases, and they should undergo regular medical check-ups. In addition to being healthy, it is also important that the workers take particular care for their personal hygiene and execute proper food handling behavior. This is especially important because food handlers can cause cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods, and they may jeopardize food hygiene by improper preparation, cooking and storage of foods [ 47 ].

    A study confirmed by the Food and Drug Administration FDA determined that 81 foodborne diseases were caused by foods contaminated via food processing workers [ 48 ]. It should be noted that food workers have the power to make a remarkable impact on public health. In reducing the foodborne diseases or food poisoning, the personal hygiene practices of workers at food production sites are a key factor [ 49 ]. It is well known that proper personal hygiene is the best way to mitigate the risks associated with contamination by most of the bacteria generally seen as being responsible for foodborne diseases Table 2 [ 40 ].

    In the Codex Alimentarius [ 50 ], the topics involving workers at food processing sites and food hygiene were classified under the following titles: Health status, Illness and injuries, Personal cleanliness and Personal behavior. Persons who have any disease that may cause food infection or persons who are suspected to be hosts should not be allowed into the food processing site.

    Workers at food processing sites who have any symptoms associated with infections should be reported to the administration, and they must be examined by a physician [ 50 ]. Those who are determined to be carriers should immediately be treated. Those who do not obtain a clean bill of health after completing their treatment should definitely not be employed.

    Similarly, it is reported that in certain regions in the United States, workers at food processing sites are required to show a health card to their employers [ 52 ]]. In the WHO consultation report, routine medical and microbiological examinations of food handlers are not generally recommended, but if food handlers are suffering from an illness that includes symptoms such as jaundice, diarrhea, vomiting, fever, sore throat, skin rash or skin lesions, like boils or cuts, they should report this to their supervisor before starting work [ 53 ].

    If workers have a sore throat or fever, open cuts or infected wounds, Norovirus, diarrhea, vomiting or jaundice or if they have had contact with someone who has Salmonella typhi, E. The employer must take the necessary precautions within 24 hours and report these workers to the relevant institutions. Many studies have recommended that food production sites include health service units and that it was important that workers report their diseases [ 54 — 57 ]. The hygiene practices that should be performed by food processing workers include precise adherence to personal hygiene regulations and the wearing of special, protective attire such as bonnets and gloves to help secure their hygiene.

    It is important that these clothes be regularly cleaned and cared for [ 50 ]. Reports have shown that the lack of personal hygiene among workers at food processing sites was among one of the practices that contributed to food borne diseases and that proper hand washing was the most commonly neglected practice. The practice of improper hand washing may be an important factor in the spreading of foodborne diseases by cross-contamination.

    It was also reported that food processing and food service workers were the asymptomatic carriers of the pathogens which caused food poisoning, due to their failure to wash their hands properly after using the restroom [ 60 ]. Another study determined that the foods became infected due to improper cleaning of contaminated hands after using the restroom [ 61 ]. The most common bacteria found were S. In addition, many studies have reported that workers in the food processing industry did not show enough care in washing their hands properly when necessary and in using protective attire e.

    Before changing tasks from raw meat to ready-to-consume foods in order to prevent cross-contamination during food preparation practices. After touching the handle of the refrigerator, door or any other place commonly used by people during food preparation practices. Before wearing gloves and after taking them off, hands should be properly washed according to hygiene rules [ 67 ].

    The steps for proper hygienic hand washing are: wash hands and wrists with soap under clean running water, being sure to rub between the fingers; use a nail brush to clean nails; rub arms and wrists with soap and water; soap and rub hands together for 10 to 15 seconds; dry hands with hot air or paper towel and use a paper towel to turn off the tap [ 63 , 68 ]. It is now known that hand-drying methods are as important as hand-washing methods in the prevention of contamination by microorganisms [ 69 ].

    Studies have demonstrated that among all forms of drying methods, hand dryers posed the greatest threat of contamination. It was found that hand drying machines are less than an ideal alternative for drying hands after they have been washed, as these machines allow the bacteria to be able to spread as far as one meter away; therefore, the use of paper towels should be encouraged [ 70 , 71 ].

    In general, humans are the primary source of food contamination, posing a risk to food safety as carriers. Along with the many extraneous factors, such as hands, clothes, accessories, hair and mustache, internally derived factors, such as the breath, spit and wounds, can be sources of contamination.

    It was reported that food processing workers were capable of spreading 10, to , microorganisms every minute [ 72 , 73 ]. Thus, workers should avoid certain behaviors at the production site, such as smoking, coughing, sneezing, chewing and eating. They also should not wear accessories, watches or hairpins [ 50 ]. Another important issue in the provision of food safety is kitchen sanitation. In order to minimize the risk of foodborne illnesses in the production and processing of foods, it is necessary to minimize the risk of contamination in the placement, arrangement and decking of kitchen utensils, to set up the area so that it is equipped to perform maintenance, repair, cleaning and disinfection and to ensure that surfaces and materials in the kitchen are anti-toxic, that the kitchen has control mechanisms for temperature and humidity, if possible, and that effective measures are taken against pests [ 50 ].

    Issues related to kitchen hygiene should be addressed prior to even completing the construction of the kitchen. The plan and interior design of the kitchen should be arranged in such a way as to facilitate proper hygiene practices e. The kitchen should be constructed with durable materials that are easy to care for and clean.

    These materials should be free of any substances that can potentially render the food unsuitable for consumption, such as parasites, pathogenic microorganisms and toxins, or raw materials, food components and others substances used in the production of processed products that have been infected by foreign substances [ 75 ]. The surfaces should be designed in such a way as to not accumulate dirt, to prevent foreign substances from infecting foods and to not allow the creation of dense liquids or mold.

    Pests should also be prevented from entering the workplace. Drainages should be easy to clean and prevent pests such as rodents from entering and waste liquids from re-entering back into the kitchen environment [ 76 ]. There should be warnings written and hung on the walls of the workplace about the rules the staff should obey and the best hygiene practices to be performed. The staff should be provided with changing rooms that include a sufficient number of lockers to hold both work and civilian clothes.

    The staff should not keep any food in these lockers [ 75 ]. Ventilation systems should be capable of eliminating smoke, odors, soot and evaporation, keeping heat inside and preventing dust, dirt and pests from entering. Filters and other parts of the systems should be easily accessible for cleaning or changing. The kitchen should have natural or artificial lights that are equal to the natural light of the day, and the intensity and color of the lights should not impact the production or the quality of the foods in a negative way.

    There should be continuous control on humidity and temperature in the food storage sites [ 76 ]. To maintain a hygienic kitchen, the continuity of cleaning and disinfection procedures is as important as the layout plan of the kitchen. Therefore, a cleaning and disinfection plan should be developed for the kitchen, and all cleaning and disinfection practices should be done according to this plan and recorded.

    The staff should be trained on the sanitation and disinfection of the kitchen [ 75 ]. Equipment that comes into regular contact with foods should be made of material able to be cleaned and disinfected, resistant to corrosion and non-toxic. The equipment should be arranged in a way as to enable it and the area around it to be cleaned sufficiently. When it is necessary that chemicals be used to clean the equipment, the instructions governing the use of those chemicals should be followed. Calibration checks of the equipment and tools should be made regularly, and these checks should be recorded [ 76 ].

    Effective food control systems are needed to improve the applicability and control of food safety [ 77 ]. Later, starting in the s, it began to be used as a reference by the Food and Drug Administration FDA in official supervisions.